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  1. Well stimulation procedures – hydraulic fracturing

    Hydraulic fracturing Natural gas is stored under pressure in pores and open fractures ... and mineral particles (associated gas). Hydraulic fracturing is the key method used in shale gas production. It involves ... Hydraulic fracturing involves injection of fracturing fluid into a sealed section of the borehole with  perforated casing. The rock ...

    Artykuł - 10/16/2014 - 15:10

  2. Hydraulic Fracturing Recipe

    ... to the borehole at very low flow rates. Nowadays, hydraulic fracturing technology is commonly applied to recover the gas from these firm ... a few or 10+ of them are used in a single fracturing job. Fluid formulations and proportions of components are frequently changed during ...

    Artykuł - 10/18/2014 - 19:17

  3. Stimulation of oil and gas production

    ... Stimulation is nowadays commonly associated with hydraulic fracturing, but a number of other techniques have been used in the past and are ... napalm-thickened gasoline was made in Kansas. Fracturing fluid with sand was used two years later. Initially, oil-based fracturing ...

    Artykuł - 12/11/2014 - 19:38

  4. Shale gas exploration/production and the groundwater

    ... contamination risks at drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing) stages. Oil and gas exploration and production operations give rise ... contaminate the aquifers as a result of: drilling fluid or gas migration – in the event of inadequate well construction, ...

    Artykuł - 10/16/2014 - 16:15

  5. Surface waters and shale gas exploration/production

    ... well drilling, reservoir stimulation (e.g. hydraulic fracturing), gas production, well abandonment and site reclamation. ... the ground in immediate proximity of the well, fracturing fluid preparation and injection areas, as well as fuel, chemicals and waste ...

    Artykuł - 10/16/2014 - 15:14

  6. Waste management - part 2

    ... produced at well drilling, reservoir stimulation (hydraulic fracturing) and well abandonment/site reclamation stages. Drilling stage ... between the rock and fluids used, total time of fluid presence in the rock mass. In addition to substances used for ...

    Artykuł - 10/16/2014 - 15:57

  7. Potential environmental impacts at each stage of works

    ... well drilling, reservoir stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), production preliminaries, production (gas production from ... sequential injections of a highly pressurized process fluid (the so-called fracturing fluid) with proppant (filling medium) into ...

    Artykuł - 10/16/2014 - 16:50

  8. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published a report on the chemicals and water used in hydraulic fracture stimulation

    ... published its first report on the fluids used in hydraulic fracturing operations in the U.S.A. The purpose of the study was to compare ... not all of them simultaneously. On average, a fracturing fluid is composed of water (88%), proppant (10%) and various chemical additives ...

    Aktualność - 05/01/2015 - 15:23

  9. Germany to block shale gas exploration?

    ... have agreed on key principles in the regulation of hydraulic fracturing – a technique used in shale gas exploration. These are very ... on the other hand, may be performed if the fracking fluid does not endanger the groundwater. The appropriateness of the legal ban ...

    Aktualność - 11/13/2014 - 13:13

  10. Public controversies over shale gas in Europe – Germany

    ... that the German government imposed a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing, but we are still unaware of the processes behind that decision. In ... well has publicly disclosed the chemical composition of the fluid used in three hydraulic fracturing operations. Hydraulic fracturing ...

    Artykuł - 11/04/2014 - 15:29

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