Hasła / Terms beginning with C

Capillary bound water search for term

Water held in inorganic pores, fractures and caverns regardless of gravitation.

Casing cementing search for term

Filling the space between casing string and the borehole wall with cement slurry in order to isolate groundwater from the well and prevent the commingling of aquifers, oil and gas horizons.

Centralizer search for term

An element of the drill stem or of the corer intended to keep them centric in the borehole or to minimize eccentricity.

Cephalopoda search for term

A group of marine organisms that live primarily in open bodies of water. A class of molluscs with bilateral body symmetry, funnel-shaped leg, arms (tentacles) around the mouth, chitinous beak and mantle that fully encloses the viscera. The size of particular species ranges from several centimetres to 20 metres. Cephalopods are the most advanced group of molluscs. Evolutionary, they appeared very early in Earth's history, probably in Cambrian. Extant cephalopods fall into two subclasses: Nautolidea, which includes Nautilus, and Coleoidea represented by squids and octopuses.

Christmas tree search for term

A device installed on top of the drilling well in order to close the borehole outlet so as to prevent any uncontrolled flow of hydrocarbons. It is composed of valves and gauges that control the well.

Clay minerals search for term

A group of layer silicates that form groupings of tiny sheets (well visible under electron microscope only). They have various characteristic properties (such as swelling, plasticity or fire resistance) that make them useful in a number of industries; a key component of clayey rocks and soils, components of other rocks.

Coiled tubing search for term

Drilling device used for delivery of various interventions in drilling and production wells (for example: cementation, well cleanup or fishing jobs, etc.). It is composed of a flexible steel pipe wound on a spool, integrated drive engine and of a piston pump. The device is mounted on a special truck trailer and fitted with a crane for rigging up and down operations.

Source: Jan Jewulski Metody intensyfikacji wydobycia płynów złożowych. Wydawnictwa AGH. Kraków, 2007

Commercial groundwater reserves search for term

Total disposable groundwater reserves (as established on the basis of proving documentations approved by the Hydrogeological Documentation Commission) and potential reserves estimated using simplified methods to establish water resources of river basins and water regions.

Commercial resources search for term

Technically recoverable resources of which production would be economically viable, provided that environmental protection requirements are satisfied

source: W. Mizerski, H. Sylwestrzak, Słownik geologiczny, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 2002

Compaction search for term

The process of reducing sediment's volume and thickness due to the pressure, normally from the load of overlying strata.

Conodonts search for term

Extinct class of chordates. Conodont fossils are built of calcium phosphate. They occur in the form of tooth-shaped skeleton elements.

Conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs search for term

Oil and gas accumulations in petroleum traps – porous permeable reservoir rocks that are sealed by impervious rocks. Sandstones and limestones/dolomites are the most common reservoir rocks. Clay shales, non-porous and non-fractured limestones, salt or anhydrytes are common sealing rocks. A vertical well must be drilled in order to produce conventional hydrocarbons. Oil and gas flow by natural lift to the borehole from permeable reservoir rocks.

Corrosion inhibitor search for term

Agents that reduce corrosive action of acids on steel. The principle of inhibitor's action is to reduce concentration of the acid's ions on metal's surface, thus inhibiting electrochemical processes that induce corrosion.

Source: Witold Górski Wykonywanie zabiegów intensyfikacji wydobycia ropy naftowej. Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy. Radom, 2007

Cross-linked polymers search for term

Liquids that achieve very high viscosity values as a result of gel cross-linking (cross-linking is the process of establishing cross links between polymer chains, using boron, titanium or zirconium).

Source: Witold Górski Wykonywanie zabiegów intensyfikacji wydobycia ropy naftowej. Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy. Radom, 2007

Crude oil (rock oil) search for term

Fossil energy resource, a mixture of liquid natural hydrocarbons and solid or gaseous hydrocarbons dissolved therein. Basically, crude oil components are: carbon (84 – 86%), hydrogen (12.5 – 14.5%) and small amounts of other elements (mainly oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur). Crude oil is an oily, pale yellow to brown or black liquid lighter than water with specific strong odour, often controlled by sulfur content.

Cuttings search for term

Broken rock material produced as the bit progresses through the rocks during borehole drilling operations.